‘Human-Wildlife Conflict Often Leads to People Killing Animals in Self-Defence, or as Pre-Emptive or Retaliatory Killings, which Can Drive Species to Extinction’

Human Wrongs Watch

WWF and UNEP report says the problem is as much a development and humanitarian issue as a conservation concern and risks derailing the Sustainable Development Goals.


Gland (UNEP)* Conflict between people and animals, from China’s famed wandering elephants raiding farms for food and water to wolves preying on cattle in Idaho is one of the main threats to the long-term survival of some of the world’s most emblematic species, warns a new report from WWF and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), out 8 July 2021.

Human-wildlife conflict – when struggles arise from people and animals coming into contact – often leads to people killing animals in self-defence, or as pre-emptive or retaliatory killings, which can drive species to extinction.

The report, A future for all – the need for human-wildlife coexistence, highlights that globally, conflict-related killing affects more than 75% of the world’s wild cat species[1], as well as many other terrestrial and marine carnivore species such as polar bears and Mediterranean monk seals, and large herbivores such as elephants.

“Within a human lifetime, we have already seen extraordinary and unparalleled changes to our planet. Global wildlife populations have fallen an average of 68 per cent since 1970,” says Margaret Kinnaird, Global Wildlife Practice Leader at WWF International.

“Human-wildlife conflict, in combination with other threats, has driven significant decline of species that were once abundant, and species that are naturally less abundant have been pushed to the brink of extinction. Unless urgent action is taken, this devastating trend will only worsen, wreaking detrimental and, in some cases, irreversible impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity.”

The report featured contributions from 155 experts from 40 organisations based in 27 countries.

“This report is a clarion call to elevate the problem of human wildlife conflict and give it the attention it deserves in national and international processes,” says Susan Gardner, Director of UNEP’s Ecosystems Division.

“It is a call for the adoption of approaches that identify and address the deeper, underlying causes of conflict while developing systemic solutions with affected communities as active and equal participants in the process. As demonstrated in many of the case studies in this report, coexistence is both possible and attainable.”

According to the report, which featured contributions from 155 experts from 40 organisations based in 27 countries, human-wildlife conflict is as much a development and humanitarian issue as it is a conservation concern, affecting the income of farmers, herders, artisanal fishers, and Indigenous peoples, particularly those living in poverty.

It also interferes with access to water for communities competing with wildlife for local water sources and drives inequality as those who pay the price for living with wildlife rarely receive the benefits of coexistence.

Despite being so strongly linked to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)*, human-wildlife conflict continues to be overlooked by policymakers.

While people the world over reap the benefits of maintaining flourishing wildlife populations – healthy ecosystems that allow us to survive, provide food and enable livelihoods – catastrophic impacts such as injury and death and the loss of property and livelihoods place a strain on those who live alongside wildlife, often in developing nations rich in biodiversity, leading to financial insecurity and poor physical and mental health.

“If human-wildlife conflict is not adequately addressed by the international community, WWF believes it will have a considerable negative impact on countries’ ability to meet the majority of the SDGs,” says Dr Kinnaird.

“If the world is to have a chance of meeting the SDGs by the 2030 deadline, human-wildlife conflict must be explicitly included in SDG implementation plans, as well as at the heart of the Convention on Biodiversity’s new framework**.”

The report says that completely eradicating human-wildlife conflict is not possible but that well-planned, integrated approaches to managing it can reduce conflicts and lead to a form of coexistence between people and animals. Such approaches require work on prevention, mitigation, response, research and monitoring all backed by strong policy support and the participation of local communities.

An example of this can be seen in the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area in Southern Africa, where an integrated approach to managing human-wildlife conflict*** has led to a 95% reduction in livestock killings, resulting in zero retaliatory killings[2] of lions in 2016 (at least 17 were killed in 2012 and 2013) and allowing previously threatened lion populations to recover.

Reducing human-wildlife conflict in this way can lead to opportunities and benefits not only for biodiversity and impacted communities, but for society, sustainable development, production, and the global economy at large.

The report says that people who have never witnessed human-wildlife conflict can still play their part in combating the problem by looking out for products certified by organizations like the Wildlife Friendly Enterprise Network and the Rainforest Alliance.****

*Most of the SDGs have links to human-wildlife conflict, for example: SDG #2: Zero Hunger. Human-wildlife conflict link: Wildlife damages food stores, crops, and livestock and puts subsistence farmers at risk of hunger. Further examples are available on request.

**The post-2020 global biodiversity framework is expected to be adopted in October at the Fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP15), where world leaders will sign a new 10-year commitment to protect biodiversity.

***The Kwando Carnivore Project started addressing human-wildlife conflict in 2013, initially by analysing the situations in which lion-livestock conflict occurred. Through a rapid documentation of losses by monitoring teams, strong community involvement, and the identification of high-risk conflict areas, an effective response was designed. Lion-proof cages were installed to protect cattle at night in risk-prone areas, and communities received support to offset any losses caused by lion predations. More details are available in the report (p59-60).

****These certified products are sourced from producers who actively minimize human-wildlife conflict. They include predator-friendly beef and goat’s cheese from Namibia, jaguar-friendly coffee from Colombia, wildlife-friendly cashmere from Tuscany, Italy, and elephant friendly tea from India, and are available at retailers worldwide.

[1]  Inskip C., Zimmermann A. (2009). Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43(1):18.

[2]  Hanssen L., Fwelimbi M.H., Siyanga O., Funston P. (2020). Human-Lion Conflict Mitigation in the Zambezi Region,Namibia. (Kwando Carnivore Project, Kongola, Namibia).

About WWF

WWF is an independent conservation organization, with over 5 million supporters and a global network active in over 100 countries.

WWF’s mission is to stop the degradation of the Earth’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the world’s biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.

About the UN Environment Programme (UNEP)

UNEP is the leading global voice on the environment. It provides leadership and encourages partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future. generations.


2021 Human Wrongs Watch

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